How Can You Get Whiter Teeth?

How Can You Get Whiter Teeth?

Good dental hygiene is always an important aspect of keeping healthy. It actually gives you confidence. Teeth whitening normally work by lightening the colour of the teeth. Tooth whitening does not, in fact, change the colour of the teeth, but simply lightens any existing colour of your teeth. Teeth whitening can be done either in dental clinics or at home with a whitening kit.

Eat a Lot of Crunchy Food

Because of their acidic nature, carrots, apples, celery, pears and many others have got the ability to clean as well as whiten your teeth naturally. Crunchy fruit and veg will always clean and also whiten your teeth. As a matter of fact, they are a natural toothbrush for your smile. Nevertheless, always remember to eat these fruits in their whole form instead of just cutting them up or even crushing them up to make juices.

Eat Dairy Products

Scientific studies indicate that dairy products such as yogurt, cheese and milk have minerals such as calcium and phosphorus that are great for strengthening your teeth and also improving their appearance as well as whiteness. They also make tooth enamel very strong.

Consume More Strawberries

Malic acid is an important component in the strawberries. It works to fade away discolorations in your teeth that may result from medication, tobacco or caffeine use. The rough texture of strawberries aids in buffing the enamel which gives a brighter and also a smoother appearance.

Finally, if you have to drink wine, soda or any other coloured type of drink, always use a straw. Coloured drinks may stain your teeth. Ensure that you use a straw to sip them directly into your mouth.

With these simple tips, you can always keep your smile bright!

Causes of Cancer

Causes of Cancer

Cancer can occur anywhere in the body and that means any cancer will be different from another. While the actions a cancer carries out are similar, you should know that there are more than 200 different types of cancer a person can have. With such a high number, it’s conceivable that there is an innumerable list of causes for how someone ends up with the illness. There are certain undeniable pointers as to what can lead a person to have cancer. These can include everything from someone’s age and what they eat, to environmental factors and how one’s immune system works. This short article will give a brief view of these common causes and how dangerous they can be.


A simple fact is that as the body gets older, the harder is it for it to keep performing in peak condition. The older someone is, the more likely they are to be diagnosed with cancer. Roughly a third of all people who have cancer are over 75.


People say that smoking is a cause of cancer, especially lung cancer, but detailing exactly what ways it can do so isn’t so forthcoming. It must be realised that smoking doesn’t create tumours but it can make their creation much even in a weakened body. Smoking drastically lowers the body’s immune system, making it harder for your body to regulate itself. Having a lower immunity, coupled with the internal chemical exposure smoking creates, can actually give a tumour a better chance of growing.


While it can’t be said that a certain food is a definite cause of cancer, it is certainly true that a poor diet can have an adverse effect on someone’s overall health. Put too much pressure on organs like the kidneys and liver and you could find yourself facing major problems later in life. Obese women people are at a higher risk of getting cancer in the breast and womb, while obese men are at risk of getting cancer of the kidney.


A lot of older males in the UK in the late 70s to early 90s were diagnosed with cancers that all stemmed from the same problem: exposure to asbestos.  The now banned mineral was used widespread in heavy industry until its dangerous nature was found out. It’s a good example of how the environment someone works in and the chemicals they become exposed to can have a massive effect on causing cancer. A common environment cancer causer is the sun, with too much exposure to its UV rays causing skin damage.


The immune system does an incredibly complex job of keeping your body in check every day. Constantly under pressure to do well, a person who has a poor immune system can be in some ways prone to getting cancer. It could be because someone is taking drugs to limit their immunity after an organ transplant or because they suffer from an illness that already drastically lowers immunity. Those with poo immune system who get cancer are more likely to suffer from skin cancer or cancer near the reproductive organs.

While all of these factors can cause cancer, there are also an abundant number of ways people can receive special treatment for cancer. This can be in the form of a private cancer hospital like The LOC or as part of the National Health Service.

Choosing dental implants

dental implants in GlasgowDr David Cashel of has many years Experience of placing dental implants and has some excellent advice when it comes to choosing dental implants and the practice involved. First of all it’s really important to make sure that you don’t judge everything based on price. Not all dental implants are made equal, and the range of different qualities you can find across the spectrum is huge. Given that the best practice material to use in dental implants is titanium, David advises that you give any dental practice which does not use titanium implants a wide berth.

There are hundreds of different types of dental implant on the market and you should be advised by a long-standing dental practitioner in whom you have the utmost faith. Some practices only quote price of the implant itself, and add on the the value of the attachment or abutment and Crown later. You need to make sure when comparing prices that you have been quoted for the entire implant system including the bridge or over denture.

A good dentist will assess you to find out whether or not you actually required implants, and if you do he will make sure that you have sufficient jawbone for the implants to embed and become successful. This may involve a series of x-rays and MRI scans and you may require to have bone grafts in certain circumstances.

Many people now travel abroad to have dental implant work done, but Dr Cashel advises strongly against this. The overwhelming reason for so-called dental implant tourism is the fact that foreign practices offer treatment at much lower prices. Whilst this can be a good thing, Dr Cashel has seen many patients who have had to have the entire dental implant process reversed because of extremely poor clinical expertise. Here in the UK a good dental implant dentist will offer a minimum of five years guarantee on all the work and you should make certain before signing anything that this is the case.

Dental implants can provide over 30 years of trouble-free eating and smiling, but it is key to do your research before selecting a dentist to do this for you.

How to care for your Invisalign retainer

How to care for you invisalign retainer

If you have invested in an Invisalign treatment then you are serious about getting that perfect smile. To help you get that smile we have written this short guide on how to care for your invisalign retainer.

  1. Always remove your Invisalign and rinse it thoroughly under luke-warm water. Make sure it is never too cold or too hot.
  2. Get your tooth paste and an old soft toothbrush and clean gently going in clockwise movements. Once you have covered the entire invisalign surface, once again give it a good old clean under tepid water.
  3. Now you need to use your eyes! Give the retainer a good inspection to see if you can see any calcium build up. It is quite distinctive and looks like a cloudy white film.
  4. If you see any calcium build up then give it a thorough soaking in the cleaning solution your orthodontist provide. Here is some good advice from the resident Orthodontist from Stoke Bishop on Invisalign Bristol and cleaning methods.
  5. Once your invisalign is thoroughly clean – pop it back in your mouth and look forward to your new smile

Finally here are a couple of more tips about your invisalign retainer

  1. Never, ever soak your invisalign retainer in mouthwash because most high street brand mouth washes have colour pigments that may stain it.
  2. Get into the habit of cleaning your retainer each time you clean your teeth
  3. When your orthodontist Bristol advises you to move on to your next retainer – keep the old one. Clean it well and put it away in your protective orthodontic box. The reasons for this there are occasion when the patient will be instructed to ‘roll-back’ to a previous retainer.
  4. Remember that your Invisalign retainers are made from plastic. So anything where the temperature is too hot or too cold could affect their shape.

Air Abrasion Dentistry

Many thanks to Dr Gardee of for this informative article on a new technique to us. Dr Gardee is one of Glasgow’s foremost dental implants dentists, and this article covers a new technique for nervous patients.

Some dentists in Glasgow and beyond are using a new technique called air abrasion which allows them to remove tooth decay without using a drill. Effectively air abrasion tools work like a small sand blaster, spraying away dental decay. Afine spray of aluminium oxide particles is blasted into the decayed part of the tooth and a suction tool removes the debris as it comes away.

The advantages of air abrasion are many – there is no drill noise, ( there’s not really any noise), there is no heat generated, no pressure and very little vibration. Air abrasion requires less anaesthesia and also leaves more of the healthy tooth tissue untouched. The mouth remains dry throughout the process which helps with the placing of composite fillings, and multiple sites within the mouth can be targeted with a single patient visit. There is a also a reduced chance of splitting or chipping the patients’ teeth.

The disadvantages – the procedure can be a little painful for the patient, especially if there is a sensitivity issue, and air abrasion is not recommended for deep cavities. The other drawback is that only composite fillings can be used following air abrasion because the surface left behind is so smooth.

Air abrasion is a great new technique for patients with a dental phobia or for children who may be frightened by the noise of a drill.

Air abrasion can also be used to remove old composite fillings or to prepare a tooth for sealants or bonding procedures.

Just a footnote here to someher other health related musings over on our other page.

Glasgow Private Investigators Did A Great Job

Vaguely health related, well certainly dental health related story of what happened in Glasgow a couple of months ago . We had a friend visiting from Canada, and we decided to go into Glasgow city centre for a night out one Saturday night. We had a great time, but were unfortuanate to be attacked on our way home. We were wandering along Argyll street looking for a taxi, when we were jumped by a couple of guys who took our phones, wallets and for good measure assaulted my Canadian pal, who had to go to hospital after having a couple of his teeth punched out.
When his parents found out about it, they went ballistic and after some research they decided to get the guys at to try and find the morons who attacked us. I guess if you’re private investigators Glasgow is a bit of a goldmine with a load of business coming in every Monday morning after the mayhem of the weekend.

Anyway, cut a long story short, Veritas Investigations had a result for us in four days !  Four days after we contacted them, we had the name and address of one of the guys who had attacked us. Not only that, Veritas had managed to obtain CCTV footage of the attack, which will be admissable in court.  We went to the police and they arrested the guy, who has now been charged. We didn’t get our money back (yet) but at least we got the guy. I can’t thank Veritas Investigations enough, all their investigators are ex police detectives, so they obviously know what they’re doing. They were polite, professional and discreet. A really big thumbs up from me and my pal.

What is a Cosmetic Dentist ?

What does a cosmetic dentist actually do ?

The simple answer is that he or she is a qualified dentist who can perform dental work which will improve the appearance of your teeth and smile although it is possible that the actual function of your teeth is not improved greatly. In many ways, the term “cosmetic” used in this context, refers to an “on the surface” improvement. However,  some cosmetic dentistry procedures do have a tremendous impact on the performance and function of your teeth. Many thanks to our friends at for their input to the following :

There can be no doubt that cosmetic dentistry is more popular and fashionable than ever before with many people desiring “Hollywood” smiles . This has produced an unprecedented demand for cosmetic dental procedures and Dentalfx in Glasgow are at the forefront of many advanced techniques. Let’s take a look at a few of the terms contained under the umbrella of the term “cosmetic dentistry” :

Dental crowns

- also known as dental caps, can be made out of resin, metal or ceramic material and completely cover an existing tooth, giving a far better appearance . These are usually placed when a patient has a discoloured or poorly shaped tooth problem, or a weakened tooth or teeth. Dental crowns are also used widely to restore broken and worn teeth or to hold a dental bridge more firmly in place , and are also used in dental implant and root canal treatment. Dental crown treatment may require a couple of visits, and may appear relatively expensive, however they can last a very long time with good maintenance.

Teeth whitening

is the single most popular form of cosmetic dentist treatment on the planet. Basically, over a period of time, the surface of the teeth become discoloured due to the effects of heavily staining food and drinks, smoking and also some medications people take which have teeth discolouring side effects. Although many cosmetic dentists now perform laser whitening, at Dentalfx the procedure is still one where a custom mouthguard is manufactured and a prescribed amount of teeth whitening solution is applied over a period of time into the mouthguard and onto the teeth, all of which can be done at home, and usually results in an excellent outcome. Stephen Jacobs, the lead practitioner at Dentalfx Glasgow, is not yet convinced as to the safety of the laser whitening procedure and therefore prefers to dispense the “old fashioned” teeth whitening trays and solutions, at least until the evidence is more robust for the laser treatment.

We will continue an analysis of cosmetic dentistry procedures in another post in the future.

Dental Implants Process

While many people have heard of dental implants, very few people know much about the actual process involved so we produced the following article courtesy of  dental practice

First of all, the good stuff !

Dental implants are the best way of replacing lost teeth and are almost universally recommended for patients who fit the profile for having implants placed. Essentially, the implant is screwed or gently tapped into the jawbone and replaces the original tooth root. Modern implants actually merge into the real jawbone and become a part of it, meaning the dental implant is rock solid and should give many years of excellent service. Properly placed implants will help to save adjacent teeth, because additional stress is placed on these teeth when you have gaps due to lost teeth, so you protect your natural teeth from even more losses. Patients report much easier chewing and more confidence in smiling and eating after having the procedure, and there’s no doubt that patients experience is much improved – you must have heard peoples’ dentures clicking or slipping when they speak ? Well, there’s zero embarrassment when you have dental implants placed. Also, they look really good !

Now on to the actual process itself ….

Implant placement can take anywhere from 6 weeks to 6 months depending on the individual patient and the number of implants required. You will have an initial visit where the dentist will do an assessment as to your suitability for the treatment. This visit will involve a dental xray and also a CT scan if required. At this visit, an impression of your jaw may also be taken.

Assuming you are suitable for the dental implant procedure, then the next stage will be to discuss the anaesthesia, which will take the form of local, sedation or general anaesthetic. With the information from the first visit available, the dentist will now know if any bone grafts are required. If so, a general anaesthetic will be necessary. If it is a “straightforward” procedure not involving bone grafts, then the dentist will administer a local anaesthetic – you should not eat or drink for around 4 hours before this and it is probably advisable to have someone on hand if you need a lift to get home afterwards. The most used procedure involves two steps : In the first stage, a small screw or tap will be placed into your jawbone. This is effectively a new tooth root, and will become the base for the crown to be attached in the second part of the process. The dentist drills a small hole into the jaw and places the implant into the hole. The incision is then closed and the jaw is given time to heal, perhaps up to 3 months. This allows the dental implant to fuse to the bone.

The next stage is the restoration – the dentist will reopen the incision, and fit a small collar on to the implant called an abutment. The crown or replacement tooth is then attached to the abutment. Depending on the scale of the work involved, a single tooth or a bridge or denture can be attached. Finally, there will be regular check ups in the post- implant period to monitor your progress.


Cosmetic Dentist Glasgow Innovation

We’ve noticed a really interesting facility built into a Glasgow dental website which allows people to make, change or cancel dental appointments without phoning a dental receptionist. Basically, the facility, called Appointmentor, is an online booking system which you can use not only from desktops and laptops but also from mobile devices. I guess if you’re a cosmetic dentist in Glasgow or maybe you can perform specialist treatments like Veneers Glasgow is becoming a real city of dental innovation and advancement. Certainly worth keeping an eye out for more dental software coming along.

Cosmetic Dentistry

A very interesting article courtesy of Dr Jameel Gardee of the Glasgow Smile Clinic – if you are looking for quality dental work such as  dental implants Glasgow appears to be one of the top places in the UK for cosmetic dentistry :

In order to complete exceptional cosmetic dentistry that follows the perfection of nature and in addition provides ultimate patient satisfaction, it is necessary to have a holistic approach to smile design and its treatment process.

Dentistry in this field that takes into account only the clinical treatment of the teeth has had some degree of success, but in many cases falls short of achieving the optimum aesthetic effect, primarily due to the fact that other vital components of the smile were not – or were only superficially, considered.

The cosmetic dentists objective is to create a beautiful smile, not just beautiful teeth 1. This can only reach its end point by starting off with a comprehensive evaluation and analysis of the different factors that play a part in the smile, such as facial form, lips and gingivae in addition to the teeth 2 .

Treatment in this holistic manner also allows those undergoing this type of work to be treated with a greater quality of care and provides information to the patient before commencement about those aspects of the smile that may have a deleterious effect to the final cosmetic result if not treated or at least considered. This in turn gives some protection to the dentist 3 as the majority of those seeking cosmetic dentistry may only expect the teeth to be manipulated to provide the result that they are hoping for, being unaware of the importance that the lips and soft tissue play in a beautiful smile. Keeping patients informed about this will lead to more realistic expectations and a greater satisfaction with the cosmetic outcome, with greater predictability comes a greater peace of mind. Unfortunately when this is not done, disappointment may necessitate re-treatment in some cases leading to further costs, time and effort.

Davis in his seminal article on smile design proposed that the successful creation of beautiful smiles requires “artistic skills as well as technical skills” 1 . These artistic skills involve training the eye to see the smiles unseen or overlooked aspects and improving them to make the smile even better. The hard and soft tissues of the teeth and gingivae between the borders of the lips make up the “smile zone” and are in effect the “canvas”of the dental artist. The balance and symmetry between these structures is what cosmetic dentists must evaluate and learn to manipulate to achieve the optimum aesthetic effect 4.

The cosmetic dentist should view things differently from the general dentist. By paying attention to the finer details of the smile which are often hidden to the untrained eye, and improving those aspects, them masterpieces may be created.

Davis further described that artists would look at the canvas and see the hard and soft tissues representing POSITIVE SPACE (light areas ie. the teeth) and NEGATIVE SPACE (dark areas ie. gingivae, space between teeth etc) respectively. Viewing the dental structures in these terms allows the dentist to reshape the positive and negative areas to compliment the shape of the smile zone and as a result bring equilibrium to the smile 5. Ideally the marginal gingivae should be symmetrical right and left, with the lateral incisor zenith about 1mm below the central incisors and canines zenith. The upper limits of the central and canine should be balanced with the internal border of the upper lip as well. The Smile Line which is an imaginary line that follows the incisal edges of the upper anterior teeth should be in harmony with the internal border of the lower lip 5.

The balance of positive and negative space can be shifted using cosmetic re-contouring or cosmetic restorative procedures to adjust the level of the soft tissues, alter tooth form, fill in space and even fill in the buccal corridor 1 .

Achieving this level of cosmetic excellence requires the whole, the parts and the details of the smile to be viewed respectively 6 and to accomplish this the dentist must learn to view his subject from an artists perspective. To aid this process, especially to the untrained eye, digital photography and various imaging softwares may be used. This will allow the dentist to closely examine the relevant components of the smile and train their eyes artistically.

There are many structural aesthetic rules relating to facial form, lips, gingivae and the teeth 5 which are beyond the scope of this article to detail fully. However an appreciation of these in relation to an artists perspective to smile design may be gleaned from the following case studies which have been completed using the principles already described.

A young woman presented, complaining about the unsightly appearance of two old anterior crowns relating to teeth 11 and 12 (Fig 1). She also wished to improve the rest of the smile zone to make it more ideal cosmetically. After a thorough history and full examination (including radiographs, photographs, study models etc), smile evaluation was conducted. When viewing the computer shaded images as part of the evaluation, certain noteworthy findings were recorded and are detailed below :

1.Facial form was charted as being of an Ovoid variety.
2.The smile zone shape was eliptical in nature with an average depth. The upper lip was slightly thin with a slight asymmetry on the patients right side (Fig 2).
3.The positive space did not fill the smile zone and the teeth were generally uneven and misshaped. The right and left sides of the smile zone were asymmetrical particularly due to the worn and rotated canine 13, longer lateral incisor 22 and slightly deeper incisal embrasure between the 14 and 13 (Fig 3). This image also made the excess amount of gingival tissue visible more apparent.
4.Close examination of the gingival tissues in Fig 4 revealed a “gummy smile” with oedematous tissue related to the 11 and 12 probably due to invasion of the biologic width during provision of the unsightly crowns.

After these findings were communicated to the patient, she decided not to proceed with correction of the lip discrepancies but was happy to continue with treatment to address the imbalances in the positive and negative spaces.
A facebow record and bite were taken. From this, a functional diagnostic wax up to golden proportions was completed to include crown lengthening which would help establish proper size, symmetry and proportion of the teeth.
Once the crown lengthening had been done, provisional prototype restorations based on the wax up were placed to further help shape the soft tissue, check occlusal forces and allow a preview of the final result which could be adjusted until the patient was satisfied with the cosmetic appearance. The tissues were then left to heal. Finally two Empress crowns (Ivoclar Vivadent) and four Empress veneers were placed on the six upper anterior teeth and the upper premolars reshaped by stoning. A maxillary occlusal guard was provided and the final “after” photograph shows the completed case with the smile now balanced in the smile zone (Fig 5).

In the second of the two cases a similar complaint presented. However, no violation of the biologic width with the old restorations had occurred and instead there was exposed margins related to the 11 and 21 (Fig 6). The patients facial form was charted as square/tapering. It is worthwhile noting the facial form, as a pleasing shape and tooth form to be used in the final restorations can be identified easily when a Trubyte Tooth Indicator guide (Dentsply) is used at the same time (which can be of use to the Dental Technician in some cases).
Upon examination of the computer shaded images, salient points noted included :

1.Smile zone shape was of a straight/rectangular variety with an average depth. Lip thickness was full and symmetrical (Fig 7). Excess soft tissue from the oral mucosa presented in the smile zone especially above the central incisor region and lip commissure areas. The buccal corridor was charted as narrow.
2.Positive space did not occupy enough of the smile zone (Fig 8). The lateral incisors were short and the 22 in particular was darker than the rest. Exposed root dentine was evident on the 11 and 21. The canine 13 was longer than the 23 affecting the balance of the smile and the gradation effect of the premolars posteriorly was excessive. The lower anterior teeth were crowded and tilted.
3.A large amount of negative space caused by too much displayed gingivae was noted especially over the 22 and 12 (Fig 9).

After consultation with the patient, a treatment plan was designed to include crown lengthening and leveling procedures. Because central incisors tend to be the focal point of the smile, the symmetry of these teeth is key in most smile makeovers so particular attention was paid to the areas above the 12 and 22. Creating dominant central incisors is another element in making a smile appear more youthful 1 which is why symmetry in this area is so important.
Three Empress crowns and three Empress veneers were placed in a treatment process similar to that described in Case 1. The final result shows a more harmonious, fuller looking and balanced smile (Fig 10).

By blending artistic and scientific principles, holistic treatment of the smile zone is made easier. To this end, digital photography and computer imaging are an invaluable tool in training the eye to assess and evaluate the smiles more subtle and hidden elements, not to mention a powerful way of educating those considering cosmetic dental procedures.
By utilizing the principles described in this article, the final end point of the treatment process can hopefully be described a work of art.

1 Davis N (1999). An artistic approach to smile design. Dentisitry Today 18(8):57-60

2 Mclaren E and Rifkin R (2002). Macroesthetics:facial and dentofacial analysis. Journal California Dental
Association 30(11)839-846

3 Yamalik N (2005). Dentist-patient relationship and quality care. International dental journal 55(2):110-112

4 Levin E (1978). Dental esthetics and golden proportion. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 40:244-252

5 Rufenacht C (1990). Fundamentals of Esthetics. Carol Stream III:Quintessence Publishing

6 Tolleth M (1987). Concepts for the plastic surgeon from art and sculpture.Clinical Plastic Surg 14:585-89